Malaria cause symptoms prevention and transmission
Malaria is a life-threatening mosquito-borne disease, and parasites from the genus Plasmodium mainly cause it.
Mosquito is one of the dangerous carriers of diseases. They can carry and spread diseases. So according to The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Mosquito-borne disease mainly occurred or scattered by the bite of an infected mosquito.
The disease that is primarily spread by the mosquitos is West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, dengue, Zika virus, and malaria.
Five parasite species cause malaria in human being, and 2 of these species are – Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The parasites are mainly spread by the infected female Anopheles mosquitoes, called “malaria vectors.”
This female Anopheles mosquito is the carrier of this parasite. When an infected mosquito bites a healthy human, the parasite present into the salivary gland of the mosquito enters into the human body. Once the parasite enters into the body, they travelled into the liver where they mature, and after mature, they come into the bloodstream and start infecting RBC (Red Blood Cell).
After 48 to 72 hour, the parasite present inside the RBC are multiply and cause burst od the cells. And then show the symptoms of malaria.
Malaria is typically found in the tropical and subtropical region where the parasites can live and survive easily. In 2017, there have been an estimated 219 million cases of malaria in 87 countries. The estimated variety of malaria deaths stood at 435 000 in 2017.
Causes of Malaria
Most of the malaria is transmitted through the bites of female Anopheles mosquitoes. The transmission of the disease depends upon factors related to the parasite, the vector, the human host, and the environment.
There are mainly four types of malaria parasites that can cause malaria in humans: Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malaria, and Plasmodium falciparum.
Plasmodium falciparum causes a severe form of the disease, and those who are affected by t this form of malaria have a higher risk of death. An infected mother can also transmit the disease to her baby during the time of birth. This is known as congenital malaria.
Malaria transmission cycle
Uninfected mosquito. A mosquito is infected when the mosquito bites a person who has already malaria.
Transmission of the parasite. If this infected mosquito bites a person in the future, then the parasite enters into the body of that person.
Transmit in the liver. Once the parasites enter into the body of a healthy person, they travelled into the liver of that person where they become mature.
Transmission into the bloodstream. When the parasites mature, they leave the liver and starts infecting red blood cells. After that, people typically show or develop malaria symptoms.
Transmit to the next person. If an uninfected mosquito bites the infected person at this point in the cycle, the mosquito will become infected with the malaria parasites of that person and then spread to the other people by bites.
Symptoms of malaria
Malaria is an acute febrile unwellness. The symptoms of malaria typically develop within ten days to four weeks. Most of the time, it does not show or develop any symptoms.
The 1st symptoms of malaria are fever, headache, and chills which may be mild and difficult to recognize or understand as malaria. If not treated, Plasmodium falciparum malaria can starts to severe unwellness, thus leading to the death of the person.
Children with severe malaria often develop one or more of the following symptoms: severe anaemia, respiratory distress in respect to metabolic acidosis, or cerebral malaria.
In adults, multi-organ failure is additionally frequent. In malaria-endemic areas, people might develop partial immunity, allowing symptomless infections to occur.
Prevention of malaria
Protection against mosquito bites throughout the day and early evening may be a key measure to prevent malaria.
Both affected and unaffected person wears personal protection measures like wearing clothing that covers the maximum amount of the body.
Using physical barriers like window screens and closed doors and windows and applying repellent to skin or clothing that contains DEET, IR3535, or icaridin according to the product label instructions.
Young kids and pregnant women should sleep under mosquito nets if sleeping throughout the day or early evening. Travellers and people living in affected areas should take similar necessary precautions described above to protect themselves from mosquito bites.
It is necessary to eliminate these mosquito breeding sites, including covering water storage containers, removing standing water in flower pots, and cleanup up trash and used tires.
Vector control is the primary way to stop and reduce malaria transmission. If coverage of vector control interventions among a selected area is high enough, then a measure of protection is going to be presented across the community.
Treatment of Malaria
Malaria could be a life-threatening condition, particularly if a person infected with the parasite P. falciparum. Treatment for the disease is usually provided in a hospital. The doctor can prescribe medications based on the type of parasite that presents in the body of the patient.
Sometimes, the medication prescribed might not clear the infection because of parasite resistance to the medicine. If this happens, the doctor may use more than one drug or change the medications altogether to treat the patient condition.
Additionally, there are many different varieties of malaria parasites present, such as P. vivax and P. ovale, have liver stages wherever the parasite will live in the patient body for an extended period and activate at a later date inflicting a relapse of the infection.
If the patient found to have one of these varieties of malaria parasites, the patient will be given a second medication to stop a relapse within the future.
Vaccine and Antimalarial drug for malaria
RTS, S/AS01 (RTS, S) is that the initial and, to date, the only vaccine to show partial protection against malaria in young kids.
It acts against P. falciparum, the first deadly malaria parasite globally and therefore the most prevailing in Africa.
Among kids who received four doses in large-scale clinical trials, the vaccine prevented about four in ten cases of malaria over four years.
Resistance to antimalarial drug medicines may be a persistent problem.
The resistance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites medicines, like chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), became widespread within the 1950s and 1960s.