Nipah virus disease

Nipah virus disease |Nipah virus| |Nipah virus causes symptoms and treatment|

According to the World Health Organization, the Nipah virus disease is an animal disease (zoonotic disease) virus. It transformed from animals to humans and even be transmitted through contaminated food or directly between people.
In infected individuals, it causes a range of diseases from symptomless (a condition showing no symptoms) infection of acute respiratory illness and fatal cephalitis (inflammation of the brain tissue). 

The virus also can cause disease in animals like pigs, leading to consequential economic losses for farmers.

Origin of Nipah virus

The virus belongs to a new genus known as Henipavirus a subfamily Paramyxovirinae. The natural host of the virus is fruit bats (family Pteropodidae).

Nipah virus was 1st recognized in 1999 at a small village Kampong Sungai Nipah in Malaysia. No new outbreaks are reported in Malaya since 1999.

It was also seen in Bangladesh in 2001. The disease has also been identified sporadically in eastern India. After that Nipah virus is recognized in Kerala, India in 2019. In Kerala, 84 people have died due to the impact of the Nipah virus.

Symptoms Of Nipah virus

Human infections range from symptomless (asymmetric) infection to acute respiratory tract infection and fatal encephalitis.

Infected individuals at first develop symptoms like fever, headaches, muscle pain, vomiting, and sore throat. This may be followed by lightheadedness, drowsiness, altered consciousness, and neurological signs that indicate acute encephalitis. 

Some individuals may also experience mycoplasma pneumonia and severe respiratory problems, including acute respiratory distress. Encephalitis and seizures occur in severe cases, getting to coma inside twenty-four to forty-eight hours. The incubation period) is believed to vary from four to fourteen days.

Nipah virus disease |Nipah virus| |Nipah virus causes symptoms and treatment|


Signs and symptoms of Nipah virus infection are nonspecific initially. Nipah virus disease will be diagnosed with clinical history during the acute and convalescent phase of the unwellness.

The most tests used are RT-PCR (period enzyme chain reaction) from bodily fluids and antibody detection via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Other tests used include PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assay and virus isolation by cell culture.

Treatment of Nipah virus

There aren’t any vaccines for both humans and animals. And the World Health Organization has identified Nipah virus disease is most famous for the World Health Organization research and Development.

Prevention and Vaccines

Currently, there aren’t any vaccines for both humans and animals for the treatment of Nipah virus disease. Intensive treatment care is given to humans infected by the Nipah virus.

According to the World Health Organization, ribavirin will reduce the symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and convulsions related to the disease. Infected people should need to be hospitalized. Police investigation systems should be established to observe the virus quickly and to initiate appropriate control measures.

The natural host of Nipah virus

Fruit bats particularly species belonging to the genus Pteropus genus – are the natural hosts for the Nipah virus. There’s no apparent disease in fruit bats.

It is assumed that the geographic distribution of Henipaviruses overlaps with that of the genus Pteropus class. This hypothesis was reinforced with the proof of Henipavirus infection in Pteropus bats from Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Malaysia, New Guinea Papua, Thailand, and Timor-Leste.

African fruit bats of the genus Eidolon belonging to the family Pteropodidae were found positive for antibodies against Nipah and Hendra viruses.

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